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Current Issue 2019

  • Pages: 145-151 Vol-16 No-2

    THE EFFECT OF Lepidium Sativum SEEDS EXTRACT ON SOME OXIDATIVE STRESS, ANTIOXIDANTS AND HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN RAT TREATED WITH CCL4

    Corresponding Author

    Loay H. Ali

    hatemloay81@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Loay H. Ali* and Wurood J. Rajab

    The aim of the current study is to the investigate the effect of hepatoprotective and antioxidant of seeds extracts of the Lepidium Sativum extract against liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. In our study, white rats were used. CCl4 (0.1) ml \100 gram body weight use to inject the rats intrapersonal mixed in olive oil same amount, twice a week for twelve weeks and treated orally with (LSS) (200 mg/kg) daily for twelve weeks and compared with a group of rats injected intrapersonal with CCl4 (0.1ml\100g b.w.) mixed in olive oil same amount, twice a week for twelve weeks as a control group. CCl4 administration is caused significant changed in serum enzymes (ALP GOT and GPT), oxidant substances (MDA, CAT, GSH and SOD) indicative of hepatic injury. The results revealed that the (LSS) extract significantly decreased AST, ALT and ALP levels. The antioxidant parameters GSH, GPx, SOD and catalase levels were increased considerably compared to their levels in groups not treated with (LSS). Histopathological findings revealed that liver of CCl4-treated rats showed Degeneration, thickness wall of the central vein; the inflammatory cells are infiltrating into portal areas and central vein. There are ameliorated significantly in the rat's groups, that treated by LSS result in a decrease in degenerated hepatocytes and there are reduce in necrosis in the group that treated by LSS (200) mg/kg followed by CCl4 administration, and demonstrated less nuclear degeneration as compared to CCl4 group. Treatment of LSS (200) mg/kg and then followed by CCl4 injection results in a decrease in nuclear degeneration. It could conclude, LSS extract has a protective effect against CCl4 toxicity. Our results are very promising LSS extract could be used to protect liver tissues against CCl4.

    Keywords: Lepidium Sativum, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, carbon tetrachloride

  • Pages: 139-143 Vol. 16 No-2

    CHARACTERIZATION OF SALVINIA MOLESTA AND CHLORELLA PYRENOIDOSA FOR BIOFUEL APPLICATIONS USING FTIR AND TGA

    Corresponding Author

    M. Mubarak

    mubarak7931@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: M. Mubarak, A. Shaija, T.V Suchithra

    Microalgae and aquatic weeds are considered as promising feedstock for biofuel production due to its higher biomass productivity and lipid content. The characterization of the feedstock is important for biofuel production. In this work, an attempt was made for the characterization of Salvinia molesta and Chlorella pyrenoidosa using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis for biofuel production. The dried and grounded S. molesta and C. pyrenoidosa was used for both analyses. The FTIR spectra was recorded from wavenumber 4004000cm-1. The TGA was performed from 28-750oC with a heating rate of 10oC/min using powdered S. molesta and C.pyrenoiodosa. The FTIR spectra showed that lipid, carbohydrate, cellulose and fatty acids bands are predominant which indicates that S. molesta and C. pyrenoidosa can be used a potential feedstock for biofuel production. The thermogravimteric analysis showed the presence of three distinct stages such as drying, devolatilization and steady decomposition of heavy components such as lignin.

    Keywords: Biomass productivity, FTIR, TGA, Lipid, Carbohydrate. Salvinia molesta, Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

  • Pages: 133-137 Vol. 16 No-2

    POST-PHOTOTHERAPY HYPOCALCEMIA IN FULL-TERM ICTERIC NEONATES AT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Corresponding Author

    Kanwal mahadev

    kanwalmohanlal@hotmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Kanwal mahadev and Mohamad Iqbal

    Neonatal jaundice affects approximately 60% of term and 80% of preterm infants requiring medical intervention shortly after birth. Phototherapy is a convenient and economical modality for the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia but it has some side effects e.g. hypocalcemia. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine the frequency of post phototherapy hypocalcemia. A total 117 full-term, icteric neonates who were exposed to photo- therapy for ?48 hours were enrolled and hypocalcemia was assessed from serum calcium level before and after exposure to phototherapy. Phototherapy induced hypocalcemia was present in twenty icteric neonates (17.1%) and affecting more female (n=12, 60%) as compared to male (n=8, 40%). Serum calcium levels were significantly reduced from 9.25 ± 0.56 mg/dL to 8.39±0.92 mg/dL after 48 hours of phototherapy (P-value ? 0.001). Moreover, a significant difference was also observed in Serum bilirubin level from baseline values 17.74 ± 1.986 mg/dL to 9.69 ± 1.29 mg/dL after 48 hours of phototherapy (P-value ? 0.001). Although the prevalence of hypocalcemia was not much higher but there is a need for calcium assessment for all neonates undergoing phototherapy.

    Keywords: Icteric neonates, hypocalcemia, phototherapy

  • Pages: 127-131 Vol. 16 No-2

    ECONOMIC BURDEN OF CAESARIAN SECTION DELIVERIES AT CIVIL HOSPITAL HYDERABAD from PATIENTS PERSPECTIVE

    Corresponding Author

    Qurat-ul-Ain Soomro

    quratulainsoomro@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Qurat-ul-Ain Soomro and Ejaz Ahmed Khan

    Background: Caesarean Section (CS) is a surgical process to minimize the risk of complications associated with vaginal birth and saves the life of both Mother and Child. Although it has economic aspects that directly effect on low income families. This study was designed to estimate the total average costs and to evaluate the opportunity cost of mothers and her guardian after cesarean section at public tertiary care Hospital.
    Methodology: It was a Hospital based cost estimating cross-sectional study. Total 270 mothers were randomly selected and interviewed. Data was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire consisted of demographic and expenditure on various factors of care for the cesarean section delivery.
    Results: The average unit costs for cesarean section delivery were 7647 rupees (69$). The mean opportunity cost of cesarean section delivery of days of work loss were 1334.02 rupees (12.13$) respectively. Duration of stay (>5 days) at cesarean section wards (p =0.000) and comorbidity (p = 0.001) was showed the significant association with total cost 2064769 (18603.57$).
    Conclusion: This study concluded that expenditure on cesarean section delivery and the opportunity cost of time of work loss were high, and it was equal to/ more than the monthly household income of one-fourth of families. Postpartum mothers and their families were economically affected due to high costs.

    Keywords: cesarean section, unit cost, patient’s perspective, opportunity cost

  • Pages: 119-126 Vol. 16 No-2

    COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE ANTIOXIDANT PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENTS OF SOME SELECTED COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE OILS IN NIGERIA

    Corresponding Author

    Nkwocha, C. Chinelo

    austinelonwa@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Nkwocha, C. Chinelo; Ekeanyanwu C. Raphael and Nwagwe R. Onyinyechi

    The present study was aimed at comparing the locally produced vegetable oils (Mamador vegetable oil, Imo palm oil, Nsukka palm oil, Kings vegetable oil) with a foreign produced vegetable oil (Turkey vegetable oil), as to the levels of total flavonoids, total phenolic compounds, total glycosides and total alkaloids. In order to quantify and identify the aforementioned antioxidants, GC model of GC SR18610 Gas chromatography FID/ECD was employed. Kings vegetable oil was characterized by high content of total flavonoids (40.798 g/100g). Turkey vegetable oil was characterized by high content of phenolics (67.173 g/100g). Imo palm oil was characterized by high content of total alkaloids (39.194 g/100g), while Mamador vegetable oil was characterized by high content of total glycosides (40.511g/100g). However, the locally produced vegetable oil (Kings vegetable oil) presented important content of the four antioxidants: total flavonoids (38.141g/100g), total alkaloids (23.132g/100g), total phenolics (51.672g/100g) and total glycosides (19.730g/100g). According to the result, it is therefore suggested that the locally produced vegetable oil (Kings Vegetable Oil) can be used as specialty oil since it contains relatively high amount of the aforementioned antioxidants. However, the other vegetable oils under study such as Imo palm oil, Turkey Vegetable Oil, Nsukka palm oil and Mamador Vegetable Oil are all suitable for consumption since they contain reasonable amount of antioxidants.

    Keywords: vegetable oil, total glycosides, total flavonoids, total phenolics, total alkaloids, gas chromatography

  • Pages: 115-118 Vol. 16 No-2

    ANALYSIS OF GENE EXPRESSION VALUE USING BIO-INSPIRED ALGORITHMS

    Corresponding Author

    J. Sumitha

    sumivenkat2006@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: J. Sumitha

    Breast cancer is one of the most common and rigorous cancers among women and continues to be a health problem all over the world. Due to genetic mutations and changes in the life styles, food habits, radiations, BRCA gene become oncogene. In this paper, Orthogonal Non-Negative Tri-factorization method and Bat algorithm was proposed for finding the disease – causing BRCA gene. Mostly Bat algorithm is used for optimizing the efficiency of the other bio-inspired algorithms. These algorithms are compared with each other to determine the efficiency in detecting the diseases from gene expression value. The results proved that the Bat algorithm performs better than Orthogonal Non-Negative Tri-factorization and other Bio-inspired algorithms than ever before.

    Keywords: Bat, Breast Cancer, Confusion matrix, Identification of BRCA gene, MNTF, ONMTF.

  • Pages: 105-113 Vol. 16 No-2

    INHERITANCE STUDIES FOR MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN WHEAT UNDER RAINFED CONDITION.

    Corresponding Author

    Muhammad Shahid Iqbal1

    shahidkooria@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Mian Faisal Nazir, Talat Mahmood, Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah, Zareen Sarfraz, Wazir Ali Metlo, Muhammad Abaid Ullah and Muhammad Shahid Iqbal1

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) the most widely grown crop across the globe is considered as the staple food of about 35% population of the world. Being a water-deficit country, Pakistan faces major reduction in wheat production especially in rainfed areas. Photosynthate or current assimilates are among the major carbon sources used during the grain filling period, whereas during moisture stress these may not be available. Hence reserves present in stem and other parts of the plant are important carbon sources for grain filling under stress conditions. Under treatment of Potassium iodide genotype LLR-22 showed the better performance while Nacozari showed the highest grain yield under rainfed conditions. Among crosses, cross LLR 20 x Parula showed the highest value for yield under both environments. Combining ability analysis revealed that under stress conditions, the traits showed different behaviour than the control condition. GL, GW, NGS, PH, DH and SL showed non-additive gene action (GCA< SCA) under control conditions while GW, TGW, YLS and NGS depicted non-additive gene action under treated conditions. GL, PH and DH showed additive type of gene action under treated condition. The crosses Nacozari x LLR 22, LLR 22 x CB 42, CB 42 x LLR 21 and LLR 22 x LLR 20 showed highest SCA effects for traits under study viz. grain yield, grains per spike, plant height and days to heading respectively. LLR 21 can be considered as the best general combiner for multiple agronomic traits under study.

    Keywords: Stem reserve translocation, photosynthetic assimilates, GSC, SCA, combining ability

  • Pages: 101-104 Vol. 16 No-2

    ANALYSIS OF GENE EXPRESSION VALUE USING BAT ALGORITHM WITH MULTIFACTOR NON-NEGATIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION

    Corresponding Author

    J. Sumitha

    sumivenkat2006@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: J. Sumitha

    The main aim is to identify the disease-affected gene from microarray data and predict the results from the gene expression value. Many computer-assisted algorithms are proposed to investigate a gene is done using machine learning and other bio-inspired algorithms. In this paper, hybridization of Bat algorithm with Multifactor Non-negative Matrix Tri-factorization method are proposed and compared with Multifactor Non-negative Matrix Tri-factorization method to estimate the efficiency of hybridization of bio-inspired algorithm to prove its optimization. The proposed Multifactor Non-negative Matrix Tri-factorization method with Bat algorithm is used to optimize these predictive results and proven its effectiveness and efficiency in detecting the disease-causing gene than ever before.

    Keywords: Cotton Seed Bug, Fiber Characteristics, Transgenic and Non-Transgenic Cotton

  • Pages: 91-99 Vol. 16 No-2

    ASSESSMENT OF COTTON SEED BUG, OXYCARENUS LAETUS KIRBY DAMAGE IN TRANSGENIC AND NON-TRANSGENIC GENOTYPES OF COTTON.

    Corresponding Author

    Muhmmad Shahid Iqbal

    shahidkooria@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Muhammad Akram, Muhammad Rafiq Shahid, Mussurrat Hussain, Muhammad Farooq, Ghulam Mujtaba Khushk, Muhammad Shahid, Ali Raza, Saghir Ahmad and Muhmmad Shahid Iqbal

    By introduction of transgenic cotton, dusky cotton bug (DCB) (Oxycarenus laetus Kirby) has attained the status of major pests of cotton. In order to assess its damage on cotton crop current study was undertaken under field condition at the research area of Cotton Research Institute, Multan. For this purpose, two transgenic cotton genotypes viz. MNH-886 and MNH-988 and two non-transgenic cotton genotypes viz. MNH-814 and VH-289 were cultivated during the two cropping seasons during 2014 and 2015. The cotton plants were covered with muslin cloth at reproductive stage to keep crop free from attack of any other insect pest at the time of data recording. A total of 400 bugs were manually released in caged plants possessing on an average 10 semi- opened bolls/plant. The bug density was maintained during the time of data recording. The results revealed that O. laetus caused significant decline in cotton seed germination %, 100-seed weight, boll weight, staple length, mike, staple strength and lint index ranged from 35.11 to 49.68%, 17.4 to 39.6%, 28.27 to 33.24%, 3.33 to 8.58%, 2.93 to 6.59%, 11.32 to 28.24% and 8.16 to 15.02%, respectively of both Bt and non Bt cultivars of cotton. Whereas, due to cotton seed density Ginning Out Turn percentage increased over control ranged from 11.43 to 19.39% in both transgenic and conventional cultivars of cotton. If we see the combine effect of coefficient of determination on both transgenic and non-transgenic genotypes of cotton it exerted 45.10% variability in boll weight, 56.90% in GOT, 5.00% in staple length, 16.5% in mike, 70.9% in staple strength, 73.20% in seed index, 16.30% in lint index and 84.70% in cotton seed germination. The regression model in combine effect was observed statistically significant to all the parameters of cotton except in case of staple length.

    Keywords: Cotton Seed Bug, Fiber Characteristics, Transgenic and Non-Transgenic Cotton

  • Pages: 81-90 Vol. 16 No-2

    ANTISTATIC PACKAGING OF PLASTICIZED BIODEGRADABLE POLYLACTIC ACID / GRAPHENE NANCOMPOSITES

    Corresponding Author

    Saif M. Jaseem

    saif.mohammad1990@icloud.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Saif M. Jaseem and Nadia A. Ali

    Poly lactic acid is inexperienced various to organic compound artifact plastics, employed in packaging with graphene that being one atom thick sheet, composed of sp2 carbon atoms organized in an exceedingly flat honeycomb structure .In this analysis victimization plasticizer thymol with composites were ready by an answer casting technique with (0.5-10) % towers Graphene .Experimental work contain morphological (AFM,FTIR), mechanical(Tensile, Tear, Hardness),electrical conductivity Color , contact angle, and TGA . Results hyperbolic electrical physical phenomenon with hyperbolic Graphene and makes the composite less resistive and appropriate to be used as antistatic packaging , increase the strength and tensile modulus and elongation at (0.5-1)% and attenuate in (3-10%)%,Tear Resistance attenuate once the tensile decrease however hardness hyperbolic with graphene .The results of contact angle of pure PLA is 83? that hydrophobic and attenuate to 51? at PLA/thymol/Graphene 10% percent to get hydrophilic that able to dissipate or promote the decay of electricity and improve method ability of device. Color and Brightness show that attenuate however appropriate for antistatic packaging and have become opacity at 100 percent Graphene. Thermal stability shows that Graphene hydrolysis by oxidization and exfoliation of carbon and also by the functionalization of sheets graphene to hence on the mass loss of composites.

    Keywords: Polylactic acid, Graphene, Antistatic packaging, Color, Contact angle

  • Pages: 69-80 Vol. 16 No-2

    EVALUATION OF CULTURE REQUIREMENTS FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION BY EGYPTIAN LOCAL ISOLATE ALONGSIDE REFERENCE STRAIN GLUCONACETO- BACTER HANSENII ATCC 23769

    Corresponding Author

    Ahmed Khera Saleh

    asrk_saleh@yahoo.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Ahmed Khera Saleh, Ayman Farrag Ahmed, Nadia Abdel-Mohsen Soliman, Maha Mohamed Ibrahim, Nashwa Ahmed El-Shinnawy, Yasser Refaat Abdel-Fattah

    Cellulose demonstrates unique properties and suitable for many different applications. In the present study an acetic acid bacterial strain has been isolated from rotten apple and investigated as cellulose producer. The strain was identified using morphological, biochemical characterization and 16s rRNA gene sequencing and named as Komagataeibacter hansenii (K. hansenii AS.5) under identity percentage 99%. Culture conditions for BC production by K. hansenii AS. 5 were screened and compared with reference one Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 23769 under static condition. Optimization of key production parameters has been carried out using OVAT (One Variable at Time) approach. Effect of media composition, inoculum size, pH, temperature, incubation time, different carbon and nitrogen sources were evaluated. The highest production of cellulose (3.75 g/l) was obtained after 10 days, 8% inoculum size, incubation 25?C by K. hansenii AS.5 using Yamanaka medium with glucose and yeast extract (YE) as a sole carbon and nitrogen source, respectively. On contrast, G. hansenii ATCC 23769 exhibits the maximal BC production (2.18 g/l) under the modified GEM medium composed of mannitol and yeast extract as the optimum carbon and nitrogen source after 7 days at 25 ?C and inoculum size 6%. It is clearly noticed the Cellulose production by the local isolate is higher than the reference one by 1.7- fold.

    Keywords: Cellulose production, Egyptian isolates, Culture requirements, OVAT.

  • Pages: 64-67 Vol. 16 No-2

    THE PREVALENCE OF SEN VIRUS GENOTYPES IN BAGHDAD CITY

    Corresponding Author

    Tariq M. Quasim

    Tarikmkasim1956@gmal.com,
  • Abstract

    Authors: Tariq M. Quasim, Abdelwahab A R. Alshaikhly

    SEN virus (SEN V) is one of worldwide incidence of blood borne pathogen. The most dominant genotypes among the nine genotypes of the SEN virus are SENV-D and H. The objective of this research was to determine the frequency of SENV genotypes particularly SENV- D and H genotypes in healthy Iraqi participant’s sera. Totally, 200 serum samples from healthy voluntaries were collected from both gender as well as subjected to nested PCR. SENV-D was detected in 30% healthy individuals and more frequent in tested male 51.25 than in female individuals 48.75%. The frequency of SENV-H was found in 5% of participants. SENV-D is the dominant strain in the Iraqi studied group followed by genotypes H. phylogenetic tree analysis of virus near-complete open-reading frame 1(ORF1), was performed, and the evolutionary relationship indicated that local isolates were very close to the group that included the Asian isolates.

    Keywords: SEN virus, genotypes H, genotypes D, PCR, Sequence,

  • Pages: 59-61 Vol-16 No-1

    EFFECT OF BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC FACTORS ON CULEX QUINQUE FASCIATUS AND CULEX MOLESTUS IN IRAQ

    Corresponding Author

    M. H. Abed-Ali

    marwa.maki@duc.edu.iq
  • Abstract

    Authors: M. H. Abed-Ali

    A study was conducted, between Juley and April 2013, to investigate the environmental factors (biotic and abiotic) affecting the relative abundance and distribution of mosquito in College of Agriculture/ Baghdad University. The sampling unit comprised different aquatic habitat types including basins, ponds and trocar. Morphological identification revealed two mosquito species, Culex quinquefasciatus and C. molestus. Statistical analysis indicated that C. quinquefasciatus individuals were significantly higher than C. molestus in all habitats. The relative abundance of both species was 80.3 and 16.6 respectively in trocars. Results showed the presence of other aquatic habitats including five insect families belonging to three orders (Odonata, Diptera and Coleoptera), frogs and snails.

    Keywords: words: mosquito, biotic and abiotic factors, relative abundance, distribution

  • Pages: 55-58 Vol-16 No-1

    EFFECTS OF AMINOETHOXYVINYGLYCINE AND POSTHARVEST TREATMENT PACKAGE OF PLASTIC WRAPPING, FUNGICIDE PROCHLORAZ, AND LOW TEMPERATURE ON THE FRUIT SHELF-LIFE AND QUALITIES OF ‘CALLINA’ PAPAYA

    Corresponding Author

    Soesiladi E. Widodo

    sestiwidodo@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Soesiladi E. Widodo, Muhammad Kamal, Suskandini R. Dirmawati, Zulferiyenni, Rachmansyah A. Wardhana, Luthfah Q. Aini

    Callina' papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit is a recently released papaya fruit cultivar that dominates domestic markets in Indonesia. Its fruit has a very short shelf-life due to high respiration and transpiration rates. In our previous research, a postharvest treatment package consisting of one-layer plastic wrapping, fungicide Prochloraz 0.67 mL/L, and low temperature of 16-18 °C was able to prolong its shelf-life and maintain its high fruit qualities. By adding an anti-ethylene of aminoethoxyvinyglycine (AVG) to the postharvest package, longer fruit shelf-life can be expected. The purpose of this research was to study the combined effect of the fruit postharvest treatment package and AVG to the shelf-life and qualities of 'Callina' fruit. The study was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design of a 2 x 2 factorial. The first factor was the fruit postharvest treatment package (without and with the package consisting of a single layer plastic wrapping + Prochloraz fungicide 0.67 mL/L + low temperature 16-18 °C) and the second factor was the anti-ethylene AVG (without and with 5 mg/L AVG). The results showed that (1) the fruit postharvest treatment package had a significant effect on the fruit shelf-life of 'Callina' papaya by prolonging the shelf-life of 14 days longer than without the fruit postharvest treatment package, without affecting its fruit qualities, (2) the AVG had no effect on the shelf-life and fruit qualities, and (3) the combination of fruit postharvest treatment package and AVG gave the best result that prolonged its fruit shelf-life up to 16 days longer than the control.

    Keywords: AVG, Carica papaya, postharvest, Prochloraz, wrapping

  • Pages: 47-54 Vol-16 No-1

    PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF COLD-ACTIVE METALLOPROTEASE BY BACILLUS SP. AP1 FROM APHARWAT PEAK, KASHMIR

    Corresponding Author

    Junaid Furhan

    junaidfurhan86@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Junaid Furhan, Neha Salaria, Misbah Jabeen and Jasia Qadri

    A gram-positive, rod shaped psychrotrophic and alkalotolerant bacterium, producing extracellular proteolytic enzyme was isolated from the peak of Apharwat, Kashmir. The strain was identified as Bacillus sp via 16S rDNA sequencing and was designated as Bacillus sp. AP1. Highest quantity of enzyme was secreted when strain was grown for 30 hours at 20ºC and pH 9.0. Glucose and skim milk were the best source of carbon and substrate respectively. The optimal activity of partially purified protease was recorded at pH 9.0, classifying the enzyme as alkaline protease. Similarly, the protease was found to be low temperature active with maximum enzyme activity at 20ºC. Strong inhibition of activity by EGTA and EDTA defines the enzyme as metalloprotease; among metal ions, Mn2+ enhanced enzyme activity. Finally, the washing test proved that enzyme could possibly be effective as an additive for cold washing purposes.

    Keywords: Bacillus sp. AP1, Cold-active protease, Psychrotrophic, Alkalotolerant, Metallo protease.

  • Pages: 40-46 Vol-16 No-1

    EXTRACTION, PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACELLULAR PULLULANASE BY KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM SOIL

    Corresponding Author

    Aswan H. Al-Bayyar

    aswan@coagri.uobaghdad.edu.iq
  • Abstract

    Authors: Shimal Y. Abdul-Hadi and Aswan H. Al-Bayyar

    Many soil samples collected from different locations in Mosul city in Iraq showed existence of bacterial isolates produce pullulanases, seven isolates were obtained and the most prominent one was denoted No5 in terms of the decomposition halo diameter, which reached 8.46 mm, and when the isolates subjected to primary screening by cultured on pullulan-supported medium it was identified as Klebsiella pneumonia after a number of diagnostic and biochemical tests. A number of sequenced steps for enzyme purification included precipitation with 75% saturation of ammonium sulphate which record enzyme activity 93.05 U/ml, followed by dialysis step for 24 hours. The purification step by using Sephadex-G100 gave 19.013% as enzymatic yield with 74.581 folds. It is cleared by using electrophoresis, that the molecular weight of the enzyme was 94 KD. By studying some enzyme characteristics, the results showed that optimum pH for activity was 6 while the optimum pH for stability was 6-7, and the optimum temperature was 60?C, while 95% of enzyme activity was retained at 50-60?C.

    Keywords: characterization, Extraction, Klebsiella pneumoniae, pullulanase, purification.

  • Pages: 35-39 Vol-16 No-1

    RISK ASSESSMENT OF DIARRHOEAL DISEASE USING A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) AT THE DISTRICT LEVEL OF SAMUT SONGKHRAM PROVINCE, THAILAND

    Corresponding Author

    Tanawat Chaiphongpachara

    tanawat.ch@ssru.ac.th
  • Abstract

    Authors: Tanawat Chaiphongpachara and Prapawan Suacum

    This study aims to investigate factors related to diarrheal disease occurrence in Samut Songkhram Province and create a spatial model to assess the level of diarrhoea risk at the district level of Samut Songkhram Province, including Muang Samut Songkhram, Amphawa and Bang Khonthi. Ten factors, including land use, population density, number of food establishments, standardized markets, hygienic toilets, volume of waste, water quality, temperature, relative humidity and rainfall were used to study their relationship with cases of diarrhoea. The results of the analysis determined four factors associated with diarrhoea, including land use, standardized markets, volume of waste and water quality (p ? 0.05). Meanwhile, assessment of diarrhoea risk levels employing GIS established that Muang Samut Songkhram had the highest risk followed by Amphawa and Bang Khonthi, respectively. This information is important for planning and controlling diarrhoeal disease in Samut Songkhram Province, Thailand.

    Keywords: Risk assessment, Geographic Information System, diarrhoeal disease.

  • Pages: 23-29 Vol-16 No-1

    A STUDY ON THE POTENTIAL OF MORINGA SEEDS IN ADSORPTION OF ORGANIC CONTENT FROM WATER COLLECTED FROM OILFIELD REFINERY

    Corresponding Author

    Ali Saleh Jafer

    alkhafajia31@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Ali Saleh Jafer, Ali A. Hassan, Zahraa Tawfiq Naeem

    The purpose of this education is to explore uses of moringa seeds (M. oleifera) in the adsorption of organic contents from wastewater of oilfield refinery, Iraq. Adsorption treatment conditions were optimized to assess the relations between working condition, such by means of moringa amount, contact time and pH, to classify the best working circumstances. Organic removal rates were 89.65% under the optimum conditions comprise a contact time of 1.5 h, 1.5 g moringa dose and pH 3. The aptitude of moringa seeds to eliminate organic contents was augmented subsequently addition of different dosage at regular mixing time between 0.5 and 1 h. The equilibrium data of adsorption were investigated by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm replicas. We noted that supreme adsorption capacity of organic intended from Langmuir isotherm stood about 23.97 mg/g. The devised adsorption can be explored as a well-organized green treatment for removal of organic matter from refinery waste water in acidic conditions pH < 7.

    Keywords: Environmental, Refinery waste water, organic treatment and adsorption.

  • Pages: 21-25 Vol-16 No-1

    ASSESSMENT OF ARSENIC, LEAD, MERCURY AND COLIFORM COUNT IN SERDANG LAKE, SELANGOR MALAYSIA

    Corresponding Author

    Abdullah Y. Al-Mahdi

    dr.microbiology2017@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Abdullah Y. Al-Mahdi, Mohamed A. Ahmida, Alabed Ali A. Alabed, Rasheed Abdsalam

    Environmental impacts from domestic and industrial wastes on aquatic ecosystems have received increasing attention in recent years. Furthermore, water-associated diseases have become one of the ten topmost diseases due to poor drinking water quality. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the concentration of three heavy metals (arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg)) and coliform count in Sri Serdang Mines Lake. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP- MS) was employed for the analysis of heavy metals. Both of fecal coliform (FC) and total coliform (TC) methods were carried out using the membrane filter technique as described by APHA (1995) standard. Results were recorded as colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL of sample. The As, Pb and Hg concentration values were ranged from 0.0287 to 0.0334; 0.0357 to 0.0508 and 0.00058 to 0.00161 mg/L, respectively. The TC and FC of Escherichia coli in Sri Serdang Mines Lake were in the range of 102 to 105 CFU/100 mL. Pb was the most abundant heavy metal present in all the water samples as compared to As and Hg. There were also significant differences (p<0.05) in both TC and FC concentrations in the water samples from all the five stations. Therefore, efficient heavy metal removal and disinfection are essential to prevent possible human exposure.

    Keywords: Assessment, Arsenic, Lead, Mercury, Coliform.

  • Pages: 13-20 Vol-16 No-1

    INFLUENCE OF SKIM MILK AND SUCROSE ON THE VIABILITY OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA AND QUALITY OF PROBIOTIC COCOGHURT PRODUCED USING STARTERS
    Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei R-68 AND Streptococcus ther

    Corresponding Author

    Usman Pato

    usmanpato@yahoo.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Usman Pato, Yusmarini Yusuf, Ivan Pratama Panggabean, Nurul Putri Handayani, Nadia Adawiyah and Arif Nanda Kusuma

    is made from the main raw material of coconut milk. In this study, the effect of skim milk and sucrose on the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was examined together with the impact on the quality of cocoghurt produced. Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei R-68 and Streptococcus thermophilus were used as starter cultures. The study was carried out experimentally using a Completely Randomized Design with the variations of both skim milk and sucrose concentrations. The data found were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and then continued with DNMRT at 5% level. Parameters observed were total LAB, pH, total lactic acid, total solid, protein, moisture and ash contents as well as total fat and fatty acid profile. The results showed that the addition of skim milk (2.5%) and sucrose (5.0%) produced cocoghurt which met the quality standard. Cocoghurt produced using skim milk 5.0% and sucrose 7.5% had the characteristic of being slightly white, tasting sour and sweet, with an aroma of coconut milk; the texture was rather thick and preferred by the panelists. Probiotic cocoghurt showed that fatty acid profiles were dominated by medium-chain saturated fatty acid 72.90% followed by long-chain saturated fatty acid 13.11% and unsaturated fatty acid 7.28%.

    Keywords: Cocoghurt, skim milk, Lactobacillus casei, coconut milk, viability

  • Pages: 5-12 Vol-16 No-1

    STUDY THE EFFECT OF GRAPHENE ON POLYMER (PAPA) COMPONENT

    Corresponding Author

    Ayad Shatti

    ayad25614@gmail.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Ayad Shatti, 1Kanaan K.Ahmed , Osamah Adnan, Ihab Aljanabi

    In this study graphene was prepared from the reaction of the graphene oxide by hummer methods. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Two types of polymers were prepared (PAPA) , Were diagnosed by FT_IR. The polymeric chips were maxed with vinyl alcohol polymer (PVA)(it's physical and chemical properties was known). The physical and electronic properties of these polymers were studied after deflection with nanoparticles. Electrophysiological measurements showed that the PAPA with graphene nanoparticles has shown a higher conductivity than the (PAPA) polymers. and the real dielectric moment constant of (PAPA +Graphene). Whereas the electrostatic moment constant showed a significant in PAPA. The study showed that these latter particles have a higher electric capacity of store energy than the polymer and are suitable for many applications ranging from the manufacture capacity to batteries.

    Keywords: Graphene, nanoparticles, polymer PAPA, conductivity, Dielectric constant, Nanocomposites.

  • Pages: 1-4 Vol-16 No-1

    ROLE OF TNF- (Aplpha) AND IL-10 IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS DISEASE AND THE ASSOCIATION WITH SOME HLA -11 DR AND DQ ALLELES

    Corresponding Author

    Samir Sabaa Raheem

    ssrj1964@yahoo.com
  • Abstract

    Authors: Samir Sabaa Raheem, Mussa M. Alkhatib, Asraa jawad jabber

    Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic disease that causes progressive joint damage and disability. Inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and IL-6, which are mainly produced by macrophages, play a central role in the development of synovitis. For example, TNF play major role in the expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory chemokines which, in combination, facilitate increase inflammatory leukocytes and severe inflammatory responses.
    In addition to environmental factors, genetic constitution of hosts seems to play a crucial role in acquiring the disease and its development. The current study was carried out for the detection of any association of HLA-class 11 (DR, DQ) with RA disease by genotyping in Iraqi patients, as well as to provide information about genotypes that may confer susceptibility or resistance to the development of the disease. >
    Aim of the study: to assess the role, strength and profile of immune response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis by estimation of TNF- ?, IL-10 and levels in compare to healthy control group. And to identify any role for certain alleles in exposure to the disease.
    Material and Method: Five ml of venous blood samples withdrawn from 30 patients suffering from confirmed Rheumatoid arthritis disease, 19 patients were females and 11 males in addition to 30 healthy control samples were enrolled in this study all samples were subjected for (ELISA test) (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay) to estimate the TNF- ?, and IL-10 Levels by using the three ml of blood to extract the serum. Another two ml was used for DNA extraction, and then HLA-Class Il genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSO).
    Results: A highly statistically significant variation both in TNF – ? levels, and IL-10 between RA patients group and healthy control group was observed, the P value was <0.001 No statically significant differences between males and females in frequency of the RA with 0.119 P value.
    HLA-class II genotyping of RA patients in compare with healthy control reflect significant differences in some alleles. Among DR alleles there were some alleles showed higher frequency in control group; DR*0403 allele showed increase frequency in control groups with 35% compared with 6.67% in patients group, and the P value was 0.020, which is considered as statistically significant Another DR*701 allele showed increase frequency in patients groups with 9 cases 30% and the P value was 0.007. Concerning DQ allele’s genotyping no significant allele’s frequency was noticed. Although *0202 allele occurred in 40% of patients group and 15% in control groups it was not significant statistically as the P value was more than 0.05

    Keywords: RA, TNF- ?, IL-10, Genotyping, alleles